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Rhinitis is a reaction that occurs in the nose when airborne irritants (allergens) trigger the release of histamine. Histamine causes inflammation and fluid production in the fragile linings of nasal passages, sinuses, and eyelids.
There is usually a family history of allergic rhinitis.
The two categories of allergic rhinitis include:
The most common causes of allergic rhinitis include the following:
The following are the most common symptoms of allergic rhinitis. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:
Children with perennial allergic rhinitis may also have the following:
The symptoms of allergic rhinitis may resemble other conditions or medical problems. Always consult your child's physician for a diagnosis.
Typically, the diagnosis is made by your child's physician based on a thorough medical history and physical examination. In addition to the above symptoms, your child's physician may find, upon physical examination, dark circles under the eyes, creases under the eyes, and swollen tissue inside the nose.
Specific treatment for allergic rhinitis will be determined by your child's physician based on:
Treatment options may include:
If your child does not respond to avoidance or to the above medications, your child's allergist then may recommend allergy shots or immunotherapy based on the findings. Immunotherapy usually involves a three- to five-year course of repeated injections of specific allergens to decrease the reaction to these allergens when your child comes into contact with them. Consult your child's physician for more information.
Preventive measures for avoiding allergic rhinitis include:
Controlling asthma may mean controlling allergic rhinitis in some patients, according to allergy and asthma experts. Allergic rhinitis affects up to 26 percent of Americans. The majority of asthma patients have rhinitis, and patients with rhinitis have a much higher prevalence of asthma than those who do not have rhinitis.
The link between asthma and allergic rhinitis was discussed at an annual meeting of the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. Newly released guidelines from the World Health Organization (WHO) recognize the link between allergic rhinitis and asthma. Although the link is not fully understood, one theory asserts that rhinitis makes it difficult to breathe through the nose, which hampers the normal function of the nose. Breathing through the mouth does not warm the air, or filter or humidify it before it enters the lungs, which can make asthma worse.
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Online Resources of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology
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