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Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder

Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

What is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

ADHD, also called attention-deficit disorder, is a behavior disorder, usually first diagnosed in childhood, that is characterized by inattention, impulsivity, and, in some cases, hyperactivity. These symptoms usually occur together, however, one may occur without the other(s).

The symptoms of hyperactivity, when present, are almost always apparent by the age of 7 and may be apparent in very young preschoolers. Inattention or attention-deficit may not be evident until a child faces the expectations of elementary school.

What are the different types of ADHD?

Three major types of ADHD include the following:

What causes attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?

ADHD is one of the most researched areas in child and adolescent mental health. However, the precise cause of the disorder is still unknown. Available evidence suggests that ADHD is genetic. It is a brain-based biological disorder. Low levels of dopamine (a brain chemical), which is a neurotransmitter (a type of brain chemical), are found in adolescents with ADHD. Brain imaging studies using PET scanners (positron emission tomography; a form of brain imaging that makes it possible to observe the human brain at work) show that brain metabolism in adolescents with ADHD is lower in the areas of the brain that control attention, social judgment, and movement.

Who is affected by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?

Estimates suggest that between 3 and 5 percent of all adolescents have ADHD. Boys are two to three times more likely to have ADHD than girls.

Many parents of adolescents with ADHD experienced symptoms of ADHD when they were younger. ADHD is commonly found in brothers and sisters within the same family. Most families seek help when their adolescent's symptoms begin to interfere with learning and adjustment to the expectations of school and age-appropriate activities.

What are the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?

The symptoms of ADHD vary with age. In general, hyperactive behavior in children is less conspicuous, as, at this age, children are less likely to be required to sit still, pay attention for long periods of time, etc. As children mature, though, symptoms become more conspicuous. In early school-aged children, symptoms present differently, and involve more gross motor activity, climbing, running, fidgeting, inability to sit still, trouble remaining seated, tapping, etc.). These symptoms often affect class work. During late childhood and early adolescence, these types of symptoms are less common, and more restlessness sets in. In adolescence, there is often more impulsive behavior, breaking of rules, and problems with relationships.

The following are the most common general symptoms of ADHD. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. The three categories of symptoms of ADHD, regardless of age, include the following:

The symptoms of ADHD may resemble other medical conditions or behavior problems. Furthermore, many of these symptoms may occur in children and teens who do not have ADHD. A key element in diagnosis is that the symptoms must significantly impair adaptive functioning in both home and school environments. Always consult your adolescent's physician for a diagnosis.

How is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosed?

ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed behavior disorder of childhood. A pediatrician, child psychiatrist, or a qualified mental health professional usually identifies ADHD in adolescents. A detailed history of the adolescent's behavior from parents and teachers, observations of the adolescent's behavior, and psychoeducational testing contribute to making the diagnosis of ADHD. Further, because ADHD is a group of symptoms, often diagnosis depends on evaluating results from several different types of evaluations, including physical, neurological, and psychological. Certain tests may be used to rule out other conditions, and some may be used to test intelligence and certain skill sets. Consult your adolescent's physician for more information.

Treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder:

Specific treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder will be determined by your adolescent's physician based on:

Major components of treatment for adolescents with ADHD include parental support and education in behavioral training, appropriate school placement, and medication. Treatment with a psychostimulant is highly effective in 75 to 90 percent of children and teens with ADHD.

Treatment may include:

Prevention of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder:

Preventive measures to reduce the incidence of ADHD in adolescents are not known at this time. However, early detection and intervention can reduce the severity of symptoms, decrease the interference of behavioral symptoms on school functioning, enhance the adolescent's normal growth and development, and improve the quality of life experienced by children or adolescents with ADHD.

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Online Resources of Adolescent Medicine


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