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Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is a form of high blood pressure in pregnancy. It occurs in about 5 percent to 8 percent of all pregnancies. Another type of high blood pressure is chronic hypertension - high blood pressure that is present before pregnancy begins.
Pregnancy-induced hypertension is also called toxemia or preeclampsia. It occurs most often in young women with a first pregnancy. It is more common in twin pregnancies, in women with chronic hypertension, preexisting diabetes, and in women who had PIH in a previous pregnancy.
Usually, there are three primary characteristics of this condition, including the following:
Eclampsia is a severe form of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Women with eclampsia have seizures resulting from the condition. Eclampsia occurs in about one in 1,600 pregnancies and develops near the end of pregnancy, in most cases.
HELLP syndrome is a complication of severe preeclampsia or eclampsia. HELLP syndrome is a group of physical changes including the breakdown of red blood cells, changes in the liver, and low platelets (cells found in the blood that are needed to help the blood to clot in order to control bleeding).
The cause of PIH is unknown. Some conditions may increase the risk of developing PIH, including the following:
With high blood pressure, there is an increase in the resistance of blood vessels. This may hinder blood flow in many different organ systems in the expectant mother including the liver, kidneys, brain, uterus, and placenta.
There are other problems that may develop as a result of PIH. Placental abruption (premature detachment of the placenta from the uterus) may occur in some pregnancies. PIH can also lead to fetal problems including intrauterine growth restriction (poor fetal growth) and stillbirth.
If untreated, severe PIH may cause dangerous seizures and even death in the mother and fetus. Because of these risks, it may be necessary for the baby to be delivered early, before 37 weeks gestation.
The following are the most common symptoms of high blood pressure in pregnancy. However, each woman may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:
Diagnosis is often based on the increase in blood pressure levels, but other symptoms may help establish PIH as the diagnosis. Tests for pregnancy-induced hypertension may include the following:
Specific treatment for pregnancy-induced hypertension will be determined by your physician based on:
The goal of treatment is to prevent the condition from becoming worse and to prevent it from causing other complications. Treatment for pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) may include:
Early identification of women at risk for pregnancy-induced hypertension may help prevent some complications of the disease. Education about the warning symptoms is also important because early recognition may help women receive treatment and prevent worsening of the disease.
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Online Resources of High-Risk Pregnancy
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