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Whooping cough, or pertussis, mainly affects infants and young children. Caused by a bacterium, it is characterized by paroxysms (intense fits or spells) of coughing that end with the characteristic whoop as air is inhaled. Whooping cough caused thousands of deaths in the 1930s and 1940s, but, with the advent of the pertussis vaccine, the rate of death has declined dramatically. Recent epidemics have occurred in areas where vaccine rates have fallen.
Whooping cough is caused by a bacteria called Bordetella pertussis. It is spread through children from exposure to infected persons through droplets in the air. Once the bacteria is in the child's airways, swelling of the airways and mucus production begins.
This disease can be prevented with proper immunizations using the pertussis vaccine. This is usually part of the DTaP vaccine - or the diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis. This vaccine is usually given to children at 2, 4, 6, and 15 to 18 months of age, with a booster at 4 to 6 years of age. The acellular pertussis vaccine now recommended produces fewer adverse reactions than the older vaccine.
The disease usually takes one to three weeks to incubate, with the child usually passing through three stages. The following are the most common symptoms of whooping cough, according to each stage. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:
Whooping cough can last up to several weeks and can lead to pneumonia.
The symptoms of whooping cough may resemble other medical conditions. Always consult your child's physician for a diagnosis.
In addition to a complete medical history and physical examination, diagnosis of whooping cough is often confirmed with a culture taken from the nose.
Specific treatment for whooping cough will be determined by your child's physician based on:
In many cases, the child may be hospitalized for supportive care and monitoring. Sometimes, oxygen and intravenous (IV) fluids are needed until the child begins to recover. Antibiotic treatment (i.e., clarithromycin [Biaxin®] or azithromycin [Zithromax®], or a related antibiotic) may also be ordered by your child's physician.
Family members and other people who have been in close contact with the child usually are started on antibiotic therapy, regardless of whether they have received the vaccine or not.
Other treatment may include the following:
Although a vaccine has been developed against whooping cough, which is routinely given to children in the first year of life, cases of the disease still occur, especially in infants younger than 6 months of age.
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