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Diphtheria, a common childhood disease in the 1930s, is an acute bacterial disease that can infect the body in two areas:
A vaccine against diphtheria has made it very rare today in the US and other developing countries.
The diphtheria bacterium can enter the body through the nose and mouth. However, it can also enter through a break in the skin. It is transmitted from person-to-person by respiratory secretions or droplets in the air. After being exposed to the bacteria, it usually takes two to four days for symptoms to develop.
The following are the most common symptoms of diphtheria. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:
Children may die from asphyxiation when the membrane obstructs breathing. Other complications of respiratory diphtheria are caused by the diphtheria toxin released in the blood, leading to heart failure.
The symptoms of diphtheria may resemble other problems or medical conditions. Always consult your child's physician for a diagnosis.
A physician can usually diagnose the illness based on clinical examination. A swab culture of the mouth or affected mucous membrane may also be used to confirm the diagnosis.
Specific treatment for diphtheria will be determined by your child's physician based on:
Antibiotics are usually effective in treating respiratory diphtheria before it releases toxins in the blood. An antitoxin can be given in combination with the antibiotics, if diphtheria is suspected. Sometimes a tracheostomy (a breathing tube surgically inserted in the windpipe) is necessary if the child has severe breathing difficulties.
Children in the US are routinely given a triple vaccine that includes diphtheria in their first year. Because diphtheria still prevails in underdeveloped countries, the vaccine remains necessary in case of exposure to a carrier visiting from abroad.
Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccines prevent these diseases. Most children who receive all of their shots will be protected during childhood. A combination vaccine is given to babies and children and provides protection against all three diseases. There are several types of the vaccine:
DTaP vaccines are given to babies and children at the following ages:
Children who are 11 to 12 years of age should receive a Td (tetanus and diphtheria) vaccine with a tetanus booster every 10 years thereafter.
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Online Resources of Infectious Diseases
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