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Rotavirus is a contagious virus and, among children, is the leading cause of severe diarrhea. In some infants and children, diarrhea may be so severe that they become dehydrated and may require emergency care or hospitalization.
Transmission of rotavirus most often occurs through fecal-oral contact. Usually, this occurs from poor hand washing or from ingestion of contaminated food or water. The virus may also be transmitted through the respiratory tract or by other body fluids, but these routes are less common. The virus may live on inanimate surfaces, such as doorknobs, toys, and hard surfaces, for quite some time. For this reason, outbreaks can occur in child care centers and within families who share a household. The hospitalized child will need to be isolated from other children to prevent transmission of the virus.
The symptoms for rotavirus can range from mild to severe. The following are the most common symptoms of rotavirus. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include.
In addition to a complete medical history and physical examination, a stool culture may be used to detect the virus.
Specific treatment for rotavirus will be determined by your child's physician based on:
There is no cure for rotavirus, so treatment of the disease is supportive (aimed at treating the symptoms present). Treatment may include:
About one out of every 40 children may develop severe enough dehydration to require hospitalization. In these children treatment may include:
The following will help to prevent the spread of the rotavirus:
If your child develops rotavirus, he/she may not be able to attend daycare or school while he/she is ill. If your child is hospitalized, he/she will be isolated from other children to prevent an outbreak in the hospital. A vaccine for rotavirus, called Rotashield, was developed and was initially approved for the use in children. However, Rotashield was willingly removed from the market in October, 1999, by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in conjunction with the recommendations made by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. The vaccine was shown to be associated with problems with children's bowels. Children who have received the vaccine prior to its removal are not at a higher risk for problems.
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