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Anatomy and Function of the Heart Valves
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The heart consists of four chambers, two atria (upper chambers) and two ventricles (lower chambers). Blood passes through a valve before leaving each chamber of the heart. The valves prevent the backward flow of blood. Valves are actually flaps (leaflets) that act as one-way inlets for blood coming into a ventricle and one-way outlets for blood leaving a ventricle. Each valve has three flaps (leaflets), except the mitral valve, which only has two flaps. The four heart valves include the following:
- tricuspid valve - located between the right atrium and the right ventricle.
- pulmonary valve - located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.
- mitral valve - located between the left atrium and the left ventricle.
- aortic valve - located between the left ventricle and the aorta.
As the heart muscle contracts and relaxes, the valves open and shut, letting blood flow into the ventricles and atria at alternate times. The following is a step-by-step description of how the valves function normally in the left ventricle:
- When the left ventricle relaxes, the aortic valve closes and the mitral valve opens, to allow blood to flow from the left atrium into the left ventricle.
- The left atrium contracts, allowing even more blood to flow into the left ventricle.
- When the left ventricle contracts again, the mitral valve closes and the aortic valve opens, so blood flows into the aorta.
Heart valves can have one of two malfunctions:
The valve(s) does not close completely, causing the blood to flow backward instead of forward through the valve.
The valve(s) opening becomes narrowed or does not form properly, inhibiting the flow of blood out of the ventricle or atria. The heart is forced to pump blood with increased force in order to move blood through the stiff (stenotic) valve(s).
Heart valves can have both malfunctions at the same time (regurgitation and stenosis). When heart valves fail to open and close properly, the implications for the heart can be serious, possibly hampering the heart's ability to pump blood adequately through the body. Heart valve problems are one cause of heart failure.
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Online Resources of Cardiovascular Disorders
- Arrillaga, Frances M. M.D.
- Asante-Korang, Alfred M.D.
- Crawford, Marguerite M.D.
- Dadlani, Gul H. M.D.
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- Freire, Grace A. M.D.
- Giroud, Jorge M. M.D.
- Gonzalez, Javier H. M.D.
- Henry, James G. M.D.
- Huhta, James C. M.D.
- Jacobs, Jeffrey P. M.D.
- John, Jonathan Blaine M.D.
- Kurtz, Stephanie A. M.D.
- Martinez, Richard M. M.D.
- McCormack, Jorge M.D.
- McKenna, Daniel E. M.D.
- Miller, Michelle S. M.D.
- Nardell, Kathryn D. M.D.
- Nguyen, Thieu P. M.D.
- Quintessenza, James A. M.D.
- Ramey, Jeremy S. M.D.
- Ringewald, Jeremy M. M.D.
- Sawalha-Turpin, Dima A. M.D.
- Stapleton, Gary E. M.D.
- Suh, Elsa J. M.D.