Everyone has to deal with bruises and bloody noses from time to time. But for people with a condition called von Willebrand disease, these things can sometimes be a problem.
Some people with von Willebrand disease never even know they have it because the symptoms are so mild. People with more severe forms of the disease are less likely to have problems if they get the proper diagnosis and treatment.
When people have von Willebrand disease (vWD for short) their blood doesn't clot properly. That means cuts and wounds can't scab over as well, so they bleed longer than normal.
Bleeding is usually a sign that a blood vessel has been cut or torn. Normally, when someone bleeds, small cells in the blood called platelets plug the hole. With the help of calcium, vitamin K, and a protein called fibrinogen, the platelets create a mesh to hold the plug in place and close the wound. As this mesh dries, it hardens into a scab.
A substance in the blood called von Willebrand factor helps platelets stick to damaged blood vessels. Special proteins known as clotting factors are also needed to help blood clot — von Willebrand factor includes one of these clotting factors, called factor VIII.
People with vWD have bleeding problems because the levels of von Willebrand factor or factor VIII in their blood are abnormal. In some cases, the factors don't work the way they're supposed to.
The disease is named after Erik von Willebrand, the doctor who first identified it. It's similar to another bleeding condition called hemophilia. Both conditions are rare. Unlike hemophilia, which usually affects only guys, both girls and guys can have vWD.
There are different kinds of vWD:
A genetic disorder, von Willebrand disease is passed down from parent to child. If a parent has vWD, a child has a 50% chance of getting the gene for the condition.
When a child has type 1 or type 2, it usually means he or she inherited the gene from one parent. With type 3, the child usually inherits genes for the disease from both parents.
Signs of von Willebrand disease can include:
Mild cases of von Willebrand disease can be hard to diagnose. If a doctor thinks you have vWD, he or she will examine you and ask about your medical history. Your medical history includes things like your past health, your family's health, and any medicines you're taking. The doctor also may send a blood sample to a lab for tests.
Having von Willebrand disease doesn't usually mean big life changes. People with more severe vWD should avoid contact sports like football and hockey, but other sports and activities are usually OK.
If someone with vWD starts bleeding, it's usually enough to put pressure on the area and wait for the bleeding to eventually stop. For nosebleeds, pinch the soft part of the nose to help stop the bleeding.
Girls with vWD who have started their periods might want to carry extra pads or even a change of clothes in case of accidents. Sometimes, a girl's doctor may prescribe birth control pills to help control heavy menstrual bleeding.
If you have vWD, talk with your doctor before taking medicine for pain or fever. Don't take aspirin and ibuprofen because they interfere with platelet function and can increase the risk of bleeding. It's usually OK to take acetaminophen for pain or fever, since it has no effect on platelet function.
Some people with more serious vWD may need to take medicines. The most common medicine for type 1 von Willebrand disease is called desmopressin. It causes a temporary increase in the von Willebrand factor level in the blood. It can be given in two ways: by injection or by being sniffed into the nose. Desmopressin may also help some people with type 2 von Willebrand disease.
People with type 3 (and some with type 2) disease need a medicine called Humate-P. It contains both factor VIII and von Willebrand factor. Humate-P is injected into a vein. Patients with type 1 also might need a shot of Humate-P in certain situations, like after major surgery or a serious accident.
Other medicines, like Amicar, control bleeding by keeping blood clots from breaking down too quickly.
Most of the time, people with von Willebrand disease can do everything their friends do. Speaking of friends, if you have vWD, it doesn't hurt to let the people in your life (like friends, teammates, or coaches) know that you have it. Von Willebrand disease isn't contagious — you can't give it to anyone — and it can help to know someone has your back.
Reviewed by: Elana Pearl Ben-Joseph, MD
Date reviewed: January 2014
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