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Medications: Using Them Safely

Medication Safety

Giving kids medicine safely can be complicated. It may be frightening to give a young child certain medications knowing that too much or too little can cause serious side effects.

But with a little knowledge and a lot of double-checking, you can give your kids medicine safely and prevent dangerous reactions.

Using medications safely means knowing when they're necessary — and when they're not. Always check with the doctor if you're unsure whether symptoms require treatment with medication.

In many cases, non-medicinal treatments may be the best bet for a quick recovery, especially with cases of the flu or the common cold. Getting enough rest will allow the body to rejuvenate, and plenty of clear fluids (such as water, juice, and broth) will help kids avoid dehydration from body fluids lost through vomiting, diarrhea, perspiration, and nasal secretions.

If your child suffers from congestion and a stuffy nose, saline drops can thin nasal secretions. A cool-mist humidifier or a warm-air vaporizer keeps moisture in the air, helping to loosen congestion. If you use a humidifier or vaporizer, though, be sure to clean it thoroughly every day because bacteria and mold can develop if it isn't kept clean and dry.

Administering Medication

To ensure the safe use of prescription or over-the-counter (OTC) medicines, discuss your child's symptoms with your doctor and pharmacist.

When giving your child medicines, you'll need to know:

Because the dosages of prescription and OTC medicines depend on a patient's weight, make sure the doctor and pharmacist have updated information about your child's size. Too little medication can be ineffective and too much medication could be harmful. Also, different medications have different concentrations of ingredients.

Make sure the doctor and pharmacist know if your child has allergies or takes other medications regularly.

Sometimes medicines should be given on an as-needed basis (given only when a child needs them for certain symptoms, such as pain or discomfort). OTC drugs that relieve symptoms like aches, pains, or fever (such as acetaminophen and ibuprofen) should only be taken as your doctor recommends. Over-the-counter cough and cold medications are not recommended for children under 6 years. It is very important to talk to your doctor first to be sure an over-the-counter medication is safe for your child.

Many medications, though, should be taken until finished as prescribed by the doctor — even if your child begins to feel better before that. For example, antibiotics help to kill bacteria in the body, so it's important to finish all doses even after symptoms disappear because the infection can return if the antibiotic is stopped too early.

Aspirin Alert!

Never give aspirin to kids, especially during viral illnesses. Using aspirin during an illness caused by a virus (such as the flu, chickenpox, or an upper respiratory infection) can cause Reye syndrome, a potentially life-threatening disease with symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and extreme fatigue that progresses to a coma.

Because some OTC medicines (including some that treat headache and nausea) contain aspirin, you should always read labels and check with your doctor before using them. Be aware that some aspirin-containing medications use words other than aspirin (such as salicylate or acetylsalicylate), so avoid those, too.

Other tips for safe medication use:

Giving Medicines to Kids

After leaving the pharmacy, you'll still need to take a few precautions. First, check to make sure you have the correct prescription. Many prescription and medicine bottles look the same, so make sure your child's name is on the label and it's the medicine that the doctor recommended or prescribed.

Be especially careful when reaching into the medicine cabinet in the middle of the night — it's easy to grab the wrong bottle when you're sleepy.

Read all instructions. Both prescription and OTC medications usually come with printed inserts about common side effects and further instructions on how to take the medicine. Be sure to read all information carefully before beginning the medication, and call the doctor or pharmacist if you have any questions.

With or without food? All prescription medications contain labels or instructions about how to take them. For example, "take with food or milk" means the medicine may upset an empty stomach or that food may improve its absorption. In this case, your child should eat a snack or meal right before or after taking the medication.

Another common instruction on prescription medicines is "take on an empty stomach," in which case your child should take the medicine 1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal because food may prevent the medicine from working properly or may delay or reduce its absorption. Some medications interact only with certain foods or nutrients, such as dairy products, so be sure to check the label for any additional instructions.

The label may instruct you to shake a liquid medicine before using so that the active ingredients are evenly distributed throughout it.

Further Instruction

The right dose. Giving the correct dose is important because most medicines need to be taken in a certain amount and at certain times to be effective. The dose will be written on the prescription label or, on OTC medications, should be printed on the package insert, product box, or product label.

In general, use caution when giving OTC medications to young kids. Cough and cold medicines are discouraged in children younger than 6 years old due to potential side effects. Consult your doctor if you have any questions.

You can dispense medicine in a variety of ways, and the best choice depends on your child's age and willingness to take medicine. For babies who aren't yet able to drink from a cup, try a calibrated dosing syringe, which lets you dispense the medication into your baby's mouth, making it less likely to be spit out. Be careful when using a syringe, though — many come with a small cap on the end that can be a choking hazard to young children. Store a medication syringe in a safe place out of the reach of kids.

Other options for young kids are plastic droppers; cylindrical dosing spoons (these have a long handle that's easier for children to grab); and, if your child can drink easily from a cup without spilling, the small dosage cups that come with many medications.

Some medicine dispensers are fashioned like pacifiers and proved effective with infants and toddlers. With these, you put the medicine in a small measuring cup attached to a pacifier, and then give the pacifier to the baby to suck — most of the medicine slips past the taste buds, making the medication go down easily.

Whatever method you use, it's important that your child takes all of the medicine each time it is given.

Never use tableware or a kitchen spoon to measure medication because these don't provide standard measurements. Instead, visit your local pharmacy or drugstore to find a measuring device designed to deliver accurate medication doses.

"But It Tastes Yucky"

Try these tips to get kids to take "yucky" medications willingly:

Caution

Never try to entice a child who balks at taking medicine by saying that it's candy. This tactic can backfire, and a child could accidentally overdose by ingesting dangerous medicine mistaken for a tasty treat. Instead, explain that medicine can make your child feel better, but it should never be taken without a parent's supervision.

If your child spits out or vomits medication, don't give another dose — call your doctor for instructions.

Side Effects

After giving your child a dose of medicine, be on the lookout for side effects or allergic reactions. The pharmacist or product packaging may warn you about specific side effects, such as drowsiness or hyperactivity.

If your child has side effects such as a rash, hives, vomiting, or diarrhea, contact your doctor or pharmacist. Penicillin and other antibiotics are among the most common prescription drugs to cause an allergic reaction.

If your child develops wheezing, has trouble breathing, or difficulty swallowing after taking a medication, seek emergency help by calling 911 or going to the emergency department immediately. These could be symptoms of a serious allergic reaction that requires emergency care.

Safe Storage

You'll need to be as vigilant about storing medications as you are about giving the correct dose. Read the medication's instructions — some drugs need to remain refrigerated, but most should be stored in a cool, dry location away from direct sunlight.

Despite the convenience of your bathroom's medicine cabinet, it's a poor choice for storing most medicines because of the humidity and moisture from the tub or shower. Instead, store medicines in their original containers in a dry, locked location that kids can't reach.

Child-resistant caps can be difficult even for adults to open, but make sure to protect your kids by re-locking and recapping child-resistant bottles properly.

Safe Disposal

When disposing of medications, make sure they stay out of the reach of children and don't contaminate the environment. Keep these suggestions in mind:

Reviewed by: Yamini Durani, MD
Date reviewed: November 2011
Originally reviewed by: Kate M. Cronan, MD

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Note: All information is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor.
© 1995-2014 The Nemours Foundation/KidsHealth. All rights reserved.

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