Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)
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An atrial septal defect is an opening in the atrial septum, or dividing wall between the two upper chambers of the heart known as the right and left atria. ASD is a congenital (present at birth) heart defect. As the fetus is growing, something occurs to affect heart development during the first eight weeks of pregnancy, resulting in an ASD.
Normally, oxygen-poor (blue) blood returns to the right atrium from the body, travels to the right ventricle, then is pumped into the lungs where it receives oxygen. Oxygen-rich (red) blood returns to the left atrium from the lungs, passes into the left ventricle, and then is pumped out to the body through the aorta.
An atrial septal defect allows oxygen-rich (red) blood to pass from the left atrium, through the opening in the septum, and then mix with oxygen-poor (blue) blood in the right atrium.
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Arial septal defects occur in 4 percent to 10 percent of all children born with congenital heart disease. For unknown reasons, girls have atrial septal defects twice as often as boys.
The heart is forming during the first eight weeks of fetal development. It begins as a hollow tube, then partitions within the tube develop that eventually become the septa (or walls) dividing the right side of the heart from the left. Atrial septal defects occur when the partitioning process does not occur completely, leaving an opening in the atrial septum.
Some congenital heart defects may have a genetic link, either occurring due to a defect in a gene, a chromosome abnormality, or environmental exposure, causing heart problems to occur more often in certain families. Most atrial septal defects occur sporadically (by chance), with no clear reason for their development.
There are three major types of atrial septal defects:
- secundum atrial septal defect
This is the most common atrial septal defect, affecting 80 percent of people with this defect. It is caused when a part of the atrial septum fails to close completely while the heart is developing. This causes an opening to develop between the atria.
- primum atrial septal defect
This defect is part of the AV canal defects, and is often found at a split in the leaflet of the valve.
- sinus venosus atrial septal defect
This defect occurs at the superior vena cava and right atrium junction. In this defect, one or more of the pulmonary veins enter the right atrium instead of correctly entering the left atrium.
This heart defect can cause lung problems if not repaired. When blood passes through the ASD from the left atrium to the right atrium, a larger volume of blood than normal must be handled by the right side of the heart. Extra blood then passes through the pulmonary artery into the lungs, causing higher pressure than normal in the blood vessels in the lungs.
A small opening in the atrial septum allows a small amount of blood to pass through from the left atrium to the right atrium. A large opening allows more blood to pass through and mix with the normal blood flow in the right heart. Extra blood causes higher pressure in the blood vessels in the lungs. The larger the volume of blood that goes to the lungs, the higher the pressure.
The lungs are able to cope with this extra pressure for a while, depending on how high the pressure is. After a while, however, the blood vessels in the lungs become diseased by the extra pressure.
Many children have no symptoms and seem healthy. However, if the ASD is large, permitting a large amount of blood to pass through to the right side of the heart, the right atrium, right ventricle, and lungs will become overworked, and symptoms may be noted. The following are the most common symptoms of atrial septal defect. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:
- child tires easily when playing
- rapid breathing
- shortness of breath
- poor growth
The symptoms of an atrial septal defect may resemble other medical conditions or heart problems. Always consult your child's physician for a diagnosis.
Your child's physician may have heard a heart murmur during a physical examination, and referred your child to a pediatric cardiologist for a diagnosis. A heart murmur is simply a noise caused by the turbulence of blood flowing through the opening from the left side of the heart to the right.
A pediatric cardiologist specializes in the diagnosis and medical management of congenital heart defects, as well as heart problems that may develop later in childhood. The cardiologist will perform a physical examination, listening to the heart and lungs, and make other observations that help in the diagnosis. The location within the chest that the murmur is heard best, as well as the loudness and quality of the murmur (harsh, blowing, etc.) will give the cardiologist an initial idea of which heart problem your child may have. However, other tests are needed to help with the diagnosis, and may include the following:
- chest x-ray - a diagnostic test which uses invisible electromagnetic energy beams to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film. With an ASD, the heart may be enlarged because the right atrium and ventricle have to handle larger amounts of blood flow than normal. Also, there may be changes that take place in the lungs due to extra blood flow that can be seen on an x-ray.
- electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) - a test that records the electrical activity of the heart, shows abnormal rhythms (arrhythmias or dysrhythmias), and detects heart muscle stress.
- echocardiogram (echo) - a procedure that evaluates the structure and function of the heart by using sound waves recorded on an electronic sensor that produce a moving picture of the heart and heart valves. An echo can show the pattern of blood flow through the septal opening, and determine how large the opening is, as well as how much blood is passing through it.
- cardiac catheterization - a cardiac catheterization is an invasive procedure that gives very detailed information about the structures inside the heart. Under sedation, a small, thin, flexible tube (catheter) is inserted into a blood vessel in the groin, and guided to the inside of the heart. Blood pressure and oxygen measurements are taken in the four chambers of the heart, as well as the pulmonary artery and aorta. Contrast dye is also injected to more clearly visualize the structures inside the heart. If the echocardiogram has provided enough information, this procedure is often not needed to evaluate ASD.
Specific treatment for ASD will be determined by your child's physician based on:
- your child's age, overall health, and medical history
- extent of the disease
- your child's tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies
- expectations for the course of the disease
- your opinion or preference
Secundum atrial septal defects may close spontaneously as a child grows. Once an atrial septal defect is diagnosed, your child's cardiologist will evaluate your child periodically to see whether it is closing on its own. Usually, an ASD will be repaired if it has not closed on its own by the time your child starts school - to prevent lung problems that will develop from long-time exposure to extra blood flow. The decision to close the ASD may also depend on the size of the defect. Individuals who have their atrial septal defects repaired in childhood can prevent problems later in life.
Treatment may include:
- medical management
Many children have no symptoms, and require no medications. However, some children may need to take medications to help the heart work better, since the right side is under strain from the extra blood passing through the ASD. Medication that may be prescribed include the following:
- digoxin - a medication that helps strengthen the heart muscle, enabling it to pump more efficiently.
- diuretics - the body's water balance can be affected when the heart is not working as well as it could. These medications help the kidneys remove excess fluid from the body.
- infection control
Children with certain heart defects are at risk for developing an infection of the inner surfaces of the heart known as bacterial endocarditis. A common procedure that puts your child at risk for this infection is a routine dental check-up and teeth cleaning. Other procedures may also increase the risk of the heart infection occurring. However, bacterial endocarditis can often be prevented by giving children with heart defects an antibiotic by mouth before the procedure. It is important that you inform all medical personnel that your child has an ASD so they may determine if the antibiotics are necessary before a procedure.
- surgical repair
Your child's ASD may be repaired surgically in the operating room, or by a cardiac catheterization procedure. The surgical repair is performed under general anesthesia. The defect may be closed with stitches or a special patch.
The cardiac catheterization procedure may also be an option for treatment. During the procedure, the child is sedated and a small, thin, flexible tube (catheter) is inserted into a blood vessel in the groin and guided to the inside of the heart. Once the catheter is in the heart, the cardiologist will pass a special device, called a septal occluder, into the open ASD preventing blood from flowing through it. This procedure is still very new. Consult your child's physician for more information.
In most cases, children will spend time in the intensive care unit (ICU) for several hours, or overnight, after an ASD repair. During the first several hours after surgery, your child will most likely be drowsy from the anesthesia that was used during the operation, and from medications given to relax him/her and to help with pain. As time goes by, your child will become more alert.
While your child is in the ICU, special equipment will be used to help him/her recover, and may include the following:
- ventilator - a machine that helps your child breathe while he/she is under anesthesia during the operation. A small, plastic tube is guided into the windpipe and attached to the ventilator, which breathes for your child while he/she is too sleepy to breathe effectively on his/her own. Many children have the ventilator tube removed right after surgery, but some other children will benefit from remaining on the ventilator for a few hours afterwards so they can rest.
- intravenous (IV) catheters - small, plastic tubes inserted through the skin into blood vessels to provide IV fluids and important medications that help your child recover from the operation.
- arterial line - a specialized IV placed in the wrist, or other area of the body where a pulse can be felt, that measures blood pressure continuously during surgery and while your child is in the ICU.
- nasogastric (NG) tube - a small, flexible tube that keeps the stomach drained of acid and gas bubbles that may build up during surgery.
- urinary catheter - a small, flexible tube that allows urine to drain out of the bladder and accurately measures how much urine the body makes, which helps determine how well the heart is functioning. After surgery, the heart will be a little weaker than it was before, and, therefore, the body may start to hold onto fluid, causing swelling and puffiness. Diuretics may be given to help the kidneys to remove excess fluids from the body.
- chest tube - a drainage tube may be inserted to keep the chest free of blood that would otherwise accumulate after the incision is closed. Bleeding may occur for several hours, or even a few days after surgery.
- heart monitor - a machine that constantly displays a picture of your child's heart rhythm, and monitors heart rate, arterial blood pressure, and other values.
Your child may need other equipment, not mentioned here, to provide support while in the ICU, or afterwards. The hospital staff will explain all of the necessary equipment to you.
Your child will be kept as comfortable as possible with several different medications; some which relieve pain and some which relieve anxiety. The staff may also ask for your input as to how best to soothe and comfort your child.
After discharged from the ICU, your child will recuperate on another hospital unit for a few days before going home. You will learn how to care for your child at home before your child is discharged. Your child may need to take medications for a while and these will be explained to you. The staff will provide instructions regarding medications, activity limitations, and follow-up appointments before your child is discharged.
Most children feel fairly comfortable when they go home, and have a fair tolerance for activity. Your child may become tired quicker than before surgery, but usually will be allowed to play with supervision, while avoiding blows to the chest that might cause injury to the incision or breastbone. Within a few weeks, your child should be fully recovered and able to participate in normal activity.
Pain medications, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen, may be recommended to keep your child comfortable at home. Your child's physician will discuss pain control before your child is discharged from the hospital.
The majority of children who have had an atrial septal defect surgical repair will live healthy lives. Your child's cardiologist may recommend that your child take antibiotics to prevent bacterial endocarditis for a specific time period after discharge from the hospital.
Consult your child's physician regarding specific outlook for your child.
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