Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs caused by bacteria, viruses, or chemical irritants. It is a serious infection or inflammation in which the air sacs fill with pus and other liquid.
- Lobar pneumonia - affects one or more sections (lobes) of the lungs.
- Bronchial pneumonia (or bronchopneumonia) - affects patches throughout both lungs.
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- Pneumonia can occur year round, but is usually seen in the winter and spring.
- Boys are affected by pneumonia more often than girls.
- There is an increased chance of developing pneumonia in a crowded area.
- Ten to 15 percent of children with a respiratory infection have pneumonia.
The main types of pneumonia are:
- bacterial pneumonia - caused by various bacteria. The streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common bacterium that causes bacterial pneumonia.
Many other bacteria may cause bacterial pneumonia including:
- Group B streptococcus (most common in newborns)
- Staphylococcus aureus
- Group A streptococcus (most common in children over age 5)
Bacterial pneumonia may have a quick onset and the following symptoms may occur:
- productive cough
- pain in the chest
- vomiting or diarrhea
- decrease in appetite
- viral pneumonia - caused by various viruses, including the following:
- respiratory syncytial virus, or RSV (most commonly seen in children under age 5)
- parainfluenza virus
- influenza virus
Early symptoms of viral pneumonia are the same as those of bacterial pneumonia. However, with viral pneumonia, the respiratory involvement happens slowly. Wheezing may occur and the cough may worsen.
Viral pneumonias may make a child susceptible to bacterial pneumonia.
- mycoplasma pneumonia - presents somewhat different symptoms and physical signs than other types of pneumonia. It is caused by mycoplasmas, the smallest free-living agents of human disease, which have the characteristics of both bacteria or viruses, but which are not classified as either. They generally cause a mild, widespread pneumonia that affects all age groups.
Symptoms usually do not start with a cold, and may include the following:
- fever and cough are the first to develop
- cough that is persistent and may last three to four weeks
- a severe cough that may produce some mucus
Other less common pneumonias may be caused by the inhaling of food, liquid, gases or dust, or by fungi.
In addition to the symptoms listed above, all pneumonias share the following symptoms. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:
- chest or stomach pain
- decrease in appetite
- breathing fast or hard
- not feeling well
The symptoms of pneumonia may resemble other problems or medical conditions. Always consult your child's physician for a diagnosis.
Diagnosis is usually made based on the season and the extent of the illness. Based on these factors, your physician may diagnose simply on a thorough history and physical examination, but may include the following tests to confirm the diagnosis:
- chest x ray - a diagnostic test which uses invisible electromagnetic energy beams to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film.
- blood tests - blood count for evidence of infection; arterial blood gas to analyze the amount of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the blood.
- sputum culture - a diagnostic test performed on the material that is coughed up from the lungs and into the mouth. A sputum culture is often performed to determine if an infection is present.
- pulse oximetry - an oximeter is a small machine that measures the amount of oxygen in the blood. To obtain this measurement, a small sensor (like a Band-Aid) is taped onto a finger or toe. When the machine is on, a small red light can be seen in the sensor. The sensor is painless and the red light does not get hot.
Specific treatment for pneumonia will be determined by your child's physician based on:
- your child's age, overall health, and medical history
- extent of the condition
- cause of the condition
- your child's tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies
- expectations for the course of the condition
- your opinion or preference
Treatment may include antibiotics for bacterial pneumonia. Antibiotics may also speed recovery from mycoplasma pneumonia and some special cases. There is no clearly effective treatment for viral pneumonia, which usually resolves on its own.
Other treatment may include:
- appropriate diet
- increased fluid intake
- cool mist humidifier in the child's room
- acetaminophen (for fever and discomfort)
- medication for cough
Some children may be treated in the hospital if they are having severe breathing problems. While in the hospital, treatment may include:
- intravenous (IV) or oral antibiotics
- intravenous (IV) fluids, if your child is unable to drink well
- oxygen therapy
- frequent suctioning of your child's nose and mouth (to help get rid of thick secretions)
- breathing treatments, as ordered by your child's physician
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Online Resources of Respiratory Disorders