Gastroesophageal Reflux (GER)
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a digestive disorder that is caused by gastric acid flowing from the stomach into the esophagus.
Gastroesophageal refers to the stomach and esophagus, and reflux means to flow back or return. Gastroesophageal reflux is the return of acidic stomach juices, or food and fluids, back up into the esophagus.
Gastroesophageal reflux is common in babies, although it can occur at any age. It is the most common cause of vomiting during infancy. It may be a temporary condition, or may be a long-term physical problem, often called gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
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Gastroesophageal reflux is often the result of conditions that affect the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). The LES, a muscle located at the bottom of the esophagus, opens to let food in and closes to keep food in the stomach. When this muscle relaxes too often or for too long, acid refluxes back into the esophagus, causing vomiting or heartburn.
As feedings are digested, the LES opens and allows the stomach contents to go back up the esophagus. Sometimes, the stomach contents go all the way up the esophagus and the baby vomits. Other times, the stomach contents only go part of the way up the esophagus, causing heartburn, breathing problems, or, possibly, no problems at all.
Some babies who have GER may not vomit, but may still have stomach contents move up the esophagus and spill over into the windpipe. This can cause asthma, pneumonia, and possibly even SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome).
Babies with GER who vomit frequently may not gain weight and grow normally. Inflammation (esophagitis) or ulcers (sores) can form in the esophagus due to contact with stomach acid. These can be painful and also may bleed, leading to anemia (too few red blood cells in the bloodstream). Esophageal narrowing (stricture) and Barrett's esophagus (abnormal cells in the esophageal lining) are long term complications from inflammation.
The following are other common symptoms of GER. However, each baby may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:
- refusal to eat
- stomach ache
- fussiness around mealtimes
- frequent cough
- coughing fits at night
- frequent upper respiratory infections (colds)
- rattling in the chest
- frequent sore throats in morning
- sour taste in the mouth
The symptoms of GER may resemble other conditions or medical problems. Always consult your baby's physician for a diagnosis.
In addition to a complete medical history and physical examination, diagnostic procedures that may be performed to help evaluate gastroesophageal reflux include:
- chest x-ray - a diagnostic test to look for evidence of aspiration.
- upper GI (gastrointestinal) series - a diagnostic test that examines the organs of the upper part of the digestive system: the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (the first section of the small intestine). A fluid called barium (a metallic, chemical, chalky, liquid used to coat the inside of organs so that they will show up on an x-ray) is swallowed. X-rays are then taken to evaluate the digestive organs.
- endoscopy - a test that uses a small, flexible tube with a light and a camera lens at the end (endoscope) to examine the inside of part of the digestive tract. Tissue samples from inside the digestive tract may also be taken for examination and testing.
- pH testing
- gastric emptying studies
Specific treatment for gastroesophageal reflux will be determined by your baby's physician based on:
- your baby's gestational age, overall health, and medical history
- the extent of the disease
- your baby's tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies
- the expectations for the course of the disease
- your opinion or preference
In many cases, GER can be relieved through feeding changes, under the direction of your baby's physician. Some ways to better manage GER symptoms include the following:
- After feedings, place your baby on his/her stomach with the upper body elevated at least 30 degrees, or hold him/her in a sitting position in your lap for 30 minutes. Because stomach sleeping has been associated with an increased risk for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), check with your baby's physician about how to position your baby for sleeping.
- If bottle feeding, keep the nipple filled with milk so your infant does not swallow too much air while eating. Try different nipples to find one that allows your baby's mouth to make a good seal with the nipple during feeding.
- Adding rice cereal to feeding may be beneficial for some older babies.
- Burp your baby several times during bottle feeding or breastfeeding. Your baby may reflux more often when burping with a full stomach.
- Make sure your baby's diaper is loose.
Treatment may include:
Many babies with GER will "outgrow it" by the time they are about a year old, as the lower esophageal sphincter becomes stronger. For others, medications, lifestyle, and diet changes can minimize reflux, vomiting, and heartburn. Surgery may be required in severe cases.
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Online Resources of High-Risk Newborn
Gastroenterology, Nutrition & Hepatology
Arasu, Thiru S. M.D.
Condino, Adria A. D.O.
Ignacio, Joseph R. M.D.
Irizarry, Karina M.D.
Kaiser, Greg C. M.D.
Linville, Tiffany M.D.
McClenathan, Daniel T. M.D.
Narwal, Shivinder M.D.
Weerasooriya, Viraine S. M.D.
Wilsey, Michael J. M.D.
Winesett, Michele M.D.
Pediatric General Surgery
Pediatric Grand Rounds Webcasts