First Aid: Heat Illness
Heat exhaustion starts slowly, but if it's not quickly treated it can progress to heatstroke. In heatstroke, a person's temperature reaches 105ºF (40.5ºC) or higher. Heatstroke requires immediate emergency medical care and can be fatal.
Signs and Symptoms
Of heat exhaustion:
- increased thirst
- muscle cramps
- nausea and vomiting
- increased sweating
- cool, clammy skin
- elevation of body temperature, but to less than 105ºF (40.5ºC)
- severe headache
- weakness, dizziness
- rapid breathing and heartbeat
- loss of consciousness leading to coma
- may not be sweating
- flushed, hot, dry skin
- elevation of body temperature to 105ºF (40.5ºC) or higher
What to Do
If your child has symptoms of heatstroke, seek emergency medical care immediately. In cases of heat exhaustion or while awaiting help for a child with possible heatstroke:
- Bring the child indoors or into the shade immediately.
- Undress the child.
- Have the child lie down; elevate feet slightly.
- If the child is alert, place in cool bath water. If outside, spray the child with mist from a garden hose.
- If the child is alert and coherent, give frequent sips of cool, clear fluids.
- If the child is vomiting, turn onto his or her side to prevent choking.
- Teach kids to always drink plenty of fluids before and during any activity in hot, sunny weather — even if they aren't thirsty.
- Make sure kids wear light-colored, loose clothing in warm weather.
- Don't let kids participate in heavy activity outdoors during the hottest hours of the day.
- Teach kids to come indoors immediately whenever they feel overheated.
Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD
Date reviewed: April 2014
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