References for Data about Volume and Outcome
Johns Hopkins All Children's Heart Institute publicly reports our Volume Data and Outcome Data to aid patients and their families in making informed decisions about healthcare. We use Quality Measures developed and endorsed by The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) and The Congenital Heart Surgeons' Society (CHSS), as described in the following publications:
- Jacobs JP, Jacobs ML, Austin EH, Mavroudis M, Pasquali SK, Lacour-Gayet FG, Tchervenkov CI, Walters III HW, Bacha EA, del Nido PJ, Fraser CD, Gaynor JW, Hirsch JC, Morales DLS, Pourmoghadam KK, Tweddell JT, Prager RL, Mayer JE. Quality Measures for Congenital and Pediatric Cardiac Surgery. The World Journal for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery 2012 Jan; 3(1):32-47. DOI 10.1177/2150135111426732.
- Jacobs JP, O'Brien SM, Pasquali SK, Jacobs ML, Lacour-Gayet FG, Tchervenkov CI, Austin EH 3rd, Pizarro C, Pourmoghadam KK, Scholl FG, Welke KF, Mavroudis C. Richard E. Clark Paper: Variation in Outcomes for Benchmark Operations: An analysis of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database. Richard Clark Award recipient for best use of the STS Congenital Heart Surgery Database. Ann Thorac Surg. 2011 Dec; 92(6):2184-92. PMID: 22115229.
- Jacobs JP, O'Brien SM, Pasquali SK, Jacobs ML, Lacour-Gayet FG, Tchervenkov CI, Austin EH 3rd, Pizarro C, Pourmoghadam KK, Scholl FG, Welke KF, Gaynor JW, Clarke DR, Mayer JE Jr, Mavroudis C. Variation in Outcomes for Risk-Stratified Pediatric Cardiac Surgical Operations: An Analysis of the STS Congenital Heart Surgery Database. Ann Thorac Surg. 2012 Aug; 94(2):564-72. Epub 2012 Jun 15. PMID: 22704799.
- Welke KF, O'Brien SM, Peterson ED, Ungerleider RM, Jacobs ML, Jacobs JP. The Complex Relationship between Pediatric Cardiac Surgical Case Volumes and Mortality Rates in a National Clinical Database. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2009 May; 137(5):1133-40. Epub 2009 Mar 17, PMID: 19379979.
- Quintessenza JA, Jacobs JP, Morell VO. Issues in Regionalization of Pediatric Cardiovascular Care. Progress in Pediatric Cardiology 2003; 18:49-53. Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. 2003.
The following references support the relationship between programmatic volume and outcome:
This analysis of the STS Congenital Heart Surgery Database concludes that "There was an inverse association between pediatric cardiac surgical volume and mortality that became increasingly important as case complexity increased. Although volume was not associated with mortality for low-complexity cases, lower-volume programs underperformed larger programs as case complexity increased."